No. When you file your Form I-131 to obtain a Refugee Travel Document, USCIS will notify you when to appear for a biometrics appointment. You must provide your biometrics while you are in the United States. If you leave the United States before you have your biometrics collected, USCIS may deny your application.
If a USCIS office overseas in its discretion permits you to file Form I-131 for a Refugee Travel Document while you are abroad, that office will advise you about the procedures for submitting biometrics. To complete your biometrics, you may need to visit a USCIS office or a U.S. Embassy, consulate, or military installation for fingerprinting.